Abies alba   Silver fir.
  Abies koreana   Korean fir.
  Abies lasiocarpa   Alpine fir.
  Abies lasiocarpa 'Arizonica'   Cork fir.
  Accent plant   A separate, often seasonal. planting of grasses. bulbs, or small herbaceous plants displayed with a formal bonsai.
  Acer buergerianum   Trident maple.
  Acer buergerianum 'Formosanum'   Formosan trident maple.
  Acer campestre   Field maple.
  Acer japonicum   Full moon maple.
  Acer palamatum 'Ukigomo'   Japanese maple 'Ukigomo'.
  Acer palmatum   Japanese maple.
  Acer palmatum 'Chishio'   Japanese red maple.
  Acer palmatum 'Deshojo'   Japanese red maple.
  Acer palmatum 'Dissectum'   Cut leaf Japanese maple.
  Acer palmatum 'Dissectum Atropurpureum'   Cut leaf Japanese purple maple.
  Acer palmatum 'Kagiri Nishiki'   Japanese maple 'Kagiri Nishikí'.
  Acer palmatum 'Kashima'   Japanese maple 'Kashima'.
  Acer palmatum 'Kiyohime'   Japanese maple 'Kiyohime'.
  Acer palmatum 'Kotohime'   Japanese maple 'Kotohime'.
  Acer palmatum 'Nishiki gawa'   Japanese maple 'Nishiki gawa'.
  Acer palmatum 'Seigen'   Japanese red maple.
  Air layering   Propagation method that encourages roots to form on a tree trunk or branch.
  Akadama   Japanese granulate clay, used as bonsai soil.
  Aka-matsu   Pinus densiflora, Japanese red pine.
  Akanire   Ulmus, Elm.
  Apex   In bonsai, this usually means the top part of the tree.
  Ara-ki   Freshly dug tree, suitable as bonsai material.
  Azalea   See 'Rhododendron'.
  Bankan   Trunk with many curves.
  Beni-shitan   Cotoneaster horizontalis, Cotoneaster.
  Berberis   Barberry.
  Berberis buxifolia   Barberry.
  Berberis darwinii   Barberry.
  Berberis thunbergii   Barberry.
  Betula nana   Dwarf birch.
  Betula pendula   European silver birch.
  Boke   Chaenomeles cardinalis, Flowering quince.
  Bonkei   Natural landscapes planted in a dish. (rocks plants, figures etc.)
  Bonsai   Tree in a shallow pot.
  Bougainvillea buttiana   Bougainvillea 'Orange King'.
  Bougainvillea glabra   Bougainvillea.
  Buna   Fagus, Beech.
  Bunjin   or Bunjingi; Bonsai in literati style.
  Buxus microphylla   Japanese box tree.
  Buxus sempervirens   Common box tree.
  Calluna vulgaris   Heather
  Callus   Corky-textured tissue that forms over a wound on a branch.
  Cambium   Narrow layer of cell tissue between the bark and wood of woody plants. The cambium of live wood is green and moist.
  Camellia japonica   Common camellia.
  Caragana arborescens   Chinese pea tree.
  Carmona microphylla   Fukien tea; subtropical species.
  Carpinus betulus   European hornbeam.
  Carpinus japonica   Japanese hornbeam.
  Carpinus laxiflora   Loose flowered hornbeam.
  Carpinus turczaninowii   Korean hornbeam.
  Castanea   Chesnut.
  Cedrus   Cedar.
  Cedrus atlantica   Atlas cedar.
  Cedrus atlantica 'Glauca'   Blue cedar.
  Cedrus brevifolia   Cyprian cedar.
  Cedrus deodora   Indian cedar.
  Cedrus libani   Lebanon cedar.
  Celtis sinensis   Chinese hackberry.
  Cercis canadensis   American redbud.
  Cercis siliquastrum   Judas tree.
  Chaenomeles cardinalis   Flowering quince.
  Chaenomeles japonica   Japanese quince.
  Chaenomeles sinensis   Chinese quince.
  Chamaecyparis obtusa   Hinoki cypress.
  Chamaecyparis obtusa 'Nana Gracilis'   Dwarf hinoki cypress.
  Chojubai   Chaenomeles japonica, Japanese quince.
  Chokkan   Bonsai with upright trunk.
  Conifer   A tree that bears cones containing the seeds. Most conifers are evergreen.
  Cornus controversa   Cherry.
  Cornus kousa   Kousa dogwood.
  Cornus officinalis   Japanese cornelian cherry.
  Corylopsis pauciflora   Buttercup winter hazel.
  Corylopsis spicata   Spiked winter hazel.
  Corylus avellana   Hazel.
  Corylus heterophylla   Japanese hazel.
  Cotinus coggygria   Smoke tree.
  Cotoneaster congestus   Dwarf cotoneaster.
  Cotoneaster horizontalis   Rockspray cotoneaster.
  Cotoneaster microfhyllus   Cotoneaster.
  Crataegus cuneata   Japanese hawthorn.
  Crataegus laevigata   English hawthorn.
  Crown   The upper part of the tree where the branches spread out from the trunk.
  Cryptomeria japonica   Japanese dwarf cedar.
  Cultivar   Variant plant produced in cultivation: indicated by single quotation marks in its botanical name.
  Cut paste   See 'wound sealant'.
  Cydonia oblonga   Common quince.
  Dai   Wooden table fitting a suiseki stone.
  Deciduous   Describing a tree or shrub that loses its leaves annually and often remains bare of leaves all winter.
  Deshojo   Acer palmatum deshojo, Japanese red maple.
  Deutzia gracilis   Duetzia.
  Die back   The death of young shoots. due to bad weather or fungal disease.
  Eda-zashi   Branch pruning.
  Elaeagnus multiflora   Elaeagnus.
  Elaeagnus pungens   Thorny elaeagnus.
  Euonymus alatus   Winged spindle tree.
  Euonymus europaeus   European spindle tree.
  Euonymus sieboldianus   Japanese spindle tree.
  Evergreen   Describing a tree or shrub that retains its leaves all year round.
  Ezo-matsu   Picea, Spruce.
  Fagus crenata   Japanese white beech.
  Fagus japonica   Japanese black beech.
  Fagus sylvatica   European beech.
  Ficus benjamina   Weeping fig.
  Ficus macrophylla   Moreton Bay fig.
  Ficus platypoda   Australian fig.
  Ficus punila   Creeping fig.
  Ficus retusa   Banyan fig.
  Forsythia intermedia   Forsythia.
  Fortunella hindsii   Dwarf orange.
  Fraxinus excelsior   European ash.
  Fuchsia microphylla   Dwarf fuchsia.
  Fuji   Wisteria floribunda, Japanese wisteria.
  Fuji-sakura   Japanese flowering cherry.
  Fukinagashi   Bonsai in windswept style.
  Gardenia   Gardenia.
  Genus   The unit of classification for a group of closely related plants: shown by the first word in the botanical name.
  Ginkgo biloba   Maidenhair tree.
  Goyo-matsu   Pinus parviflora, Japanese white pine.
  Grafting   Propagation technique.
  Habit   The characteristic growth pattern of a plant.
  Hamamelis japonica   Japanese witch hazel.
  Hankan   Bonsai with a very coiled trunk.
  Han-kengai   Bonsai in semi-cascading style.
  Hardy   Describing plants that are able to withstand winter frost.
  Hariganekake   Wiring a tree.
  Hedera helix   Common Ivy.
  Himeringo   Apple.
  Hinoki   Chamaecyparis obtusa, Hinoki cypress.
  Hokidachi   Bonsai in broom style.
  Hyakujikko   Lagerstroemia indica, Crab myrtle.
  Ichii   Taxus, Yew.
  Icho   Ginkgo, Maidenhair tree.
  Ikadabuke   Bonsai in raft style.
  Ilex crenata   Japenese evergreen holly.
  Ilex serrata   Japanese deciduous holly.
  Internodal distance   The length of stem between two nodes (leaf joints).
  Ishitsuki   Rock grown bonsai.
  Jasminum nudiflorum   Winter jasmine.
  Jasminum officinale   Common white jasmine.
  Jin   Or Eda-jin; artificially bleached branch.
  Juniperus chinensis   Chinese juniper.
  Juniperus communis   Common juniper.
  Juniperus media 'Blaauwii'   Chinese juniper.
  Juniperus procumbens   Creeping juniper.
  Juniperus rigida   Needle juniper.
  Juniperus sabina   Savin juniper.
  Juniperus sargentii   Sargent's juniper.
  Juniperus squamata 'Meyeri'   Blue juniper.
  Juvenile foliage   Young leaves of a tree that has distinclly different adult foliage.
  Kabudachi   Clump-style bonsai; several trunks from a single root.
  Kadsura japonica   Scarlet kadsura.
  Kaede   Acer buergerianum, Trident maple.
  Kaido   Malus, Crab apple.
  Kanju   Deciduous trees.
  Kanuma   Soil for azaleas.
  Karikomi   Pruning of leaves and branches.
  Karin   Chaenomeles sinensis, Chinese quince.
  Kengai   Bonsai in cascading style.
  Keto-tsuchi   See 'peat'.
  Keyaki   Zelkova, Japanese elm.
  Kiryu   Japanese rocky granulates, used for drainage in bonsai soil.
  Kobushi   Magnolia stellata, Star magnolia.
  Kokejun   Trunk that tapers towards the top.
  Kuchinashi   Gardenia, Gardenia.
  Kuro-matsu   Pinus thunbergii, Japanese black pine.
  Kuruma-eda   Unsuitable branch that must be cut off.
  Kusamono   See 'accent plant'.
  Lagerstroemia indica   Crab myrtle.
  Larix decidua   European larch.
  Larix kaemperferi   Japanese larch.
  Leader   Generally, the main shoot, at the tip of a branch, that extends the branch growth: in bonsai, usually the uppermost continuation of the trunk.
  Ligustrum ovalifolium   Oval-leaf privet.
  Ligustrum vulgare   Common privet.
  Liquidambar styraciflua   Sweet gum.
  Lonicera japonica   Japanese honeysuckle.
  Lonicera morowii   Honeysuckle.
  Lonicera nitida   Dwarf honeysuckle.
  Magnolia stellata   Star magnolia.
  Malus cerasifera   Nagasaki crab apple.
  Malus halliana   Hall's crab apple.
  Malus sieboldii   Crab apple.
  Malus sylvestris   Common crab apple.
  Mame bonsai   Bonsai less then 10cm tall.
  Mansaku   Coriylus heterophylla, Japanese witch hazel.
  Mayumi   Euonymus sieboldianus, Japanese spindle tree.
  Metasequoia glyptostroboides   Dawn redwood.
  Mizuki   Cornus controversa, Cherry.
  Momiji   Acer palmatum, Japanese maple.
  Morus alba   White mulberry.
  Moyogi   Bonsai in unformal upright style.
  Murraya paniculata   Jasmine orange.
  Myrtus apiculata   Myrtle.
  Myrtus communis   Common myrtle.
  Nandina domestica   Heavenly bamboo.
  Natsutsubaki   Stewartia, Stewartia.
  Neagari   Bonsai with exposed roots.
  Nebari   Shape of the visible roots.
  Nejikan   Bonsai with twisted trunk.
  Netsuranari   Bonsai style with several trees growing from a single root.
  Nishiki-matsu   Pinus thunbergii corticosa, Corkbark pine.
  Nitrogen   Also known as (N); Essential element of plant nutrition: for growth above the ground, especially green tissue in leaves and stems.
  Notofagus antarctica   Antarctic beech.
  Notofagus procera   Southern beech.
  NPK   Abbreviation used to denote the relative proportions of the minerals nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) contained in a fertilizer.
  Obai   Jasminum nudiflorum, Winter jasmine.
  Olea europaea   Olive.
  Parthenocissus tricupidata   Boston Ivy.
  Peat   Partly decomposed organic matter, found in bogs, marshes or heaths. It helps to retain moisture in potting soil.
  Phosphorus   Also known as (P); Essential element of plant nutrition: for root development and ripening of fruits and seeds.
  Phyllostachys   Golden bamboo.
  Phyllostachys nigra   Black bamboo.
  Picea abies   Norway spruce.
  Picea abies 'Little gem'   Dwarf spruce.
  Picea abies 'Nidiformis'   Bird's nest spruce.
  Picea glehnii   Sakhalin spruce.
  Picea glehnii 'Yatsubusa'   Dwarf sakhalin spruce.
  Picea jezoensis   Jezo or edo spruce.
  Pinching   Training or shaping a tree by gently pulling off soft new shoots with finger and thumb.
  Pinus densiflora   Japanese red pine.
  Pinus mugo   Mountain pine.
  Pinus parviflora   Japanese white or five needle pine.
  Pinus pentaphylla   See 'Pinus parviflora'.
  Pinus sylvestris   Scots pine.
  Pinus thunbergii   Japanese black pine.
  Pinus thunbergii 'Corticosa'   Corkbark japanese black pine.
  Podocarpus macrophyllus   Chinese podocarpus.
  Pot bound   Describing a plant when its roots fill its pot and eliminate all air spaces.
  Potassium   Also known as (K) Essential element of plant nutrition: for strong new growth, flower buds. and fruit. In horticulture, it is commonly known as potash.
  Potentilla fructicosa   Potentilla.
  Pruning   Cutting or pinching back shoots, leaves. and stems in order to control growth and to shape the plant.
  Prunus avium   Japanese wild cherry.
  Prunus cerasifera   Myrobalan plum.
  Prunus dulcis   Elmond.
  Prunus mume   Flowering apricot.
  Prunus persica   Peach.
  Prunus salicina   Japanese plum.
  Prunus serrulata   Flowering cherry.
  Prunus spinosa   Blackthorn.
  Pseudosidonia sinensis   See 'Chaenomeles sinensis'.
  Punica granatum   Pomegranate.
  Pyracantha   Firethorn.
  Quercus cerris   Turkey oak.
  Quercus palustris   Pin oak.
  Quercus robur   English oak.
  Repotting   Regularly removing a plant from its pot. usually every year or so and replanting in fresh soil to encourage root growth.
  Rhododendron indicum   Satsuki azalea.
  Robinia pseudoacacia   False acacia.
  Root pruning   Cutting back roots of a pot-bound plant to add fresh soil and encourage growth of new-roots.
  Rootball   The mass of roots and soil seen when plant is lifted from container or ground.
  Saba miki   Hollow trunk.
  Sabamiki   Bonsai with split trunk.
  Sageretia theezans   Sageretia.
  Sahi-ho   Cutting.
  Sahi-ki   Propagating by means of cuttings.
  Saikei   Landscapes with rocks and trees.
  Salix babylonica   Weeping willow.
  Salix helvetica   Swiss willow.
  Salix repens   Creeping willow.
  Sankan   Triple-trunked bonsai.
  Satsuki   Rhododendron indicum, Satsuki azalea.
  Scorch   Foliage damage from strong sun or wind. or root damage from fertilizer overdose.
  Seigen   Acer palmatum 'Seigen', Japanese red maple.
  Seishi   Bonsai training.
  Sequoia sempervirens   California redwood.
  Serissa foetida   Tree of a tousand stars.
  Shakan   Bonsai with slanting trunk.
  Shari   Artificial dead wood parts on the trunk.
  Sharimiki   Driftwood style.
  Shimotsuke   Spiraea japonica, Japanese spiraea.
  Shinpaku   Juniperus sinensis, Chinese juniper.
  Shobyaku   Berberis, Barberry.
  Shohaku   Coniferious trees.
  Shohin-bonsai   Bonsai no more than 15cm tall.
  Sokan   Twin trunked bonsai.
  Sophora japonica   Japanese pagoda tree.
  Sorbus aucuparia   Mountain ash.
  Soro   Carpinus japonica, Japanese hornbeam.
  Species   Unit of classification for a plant that has particular characteristics: identified by the second word of its botanical name.
  Sphagnum moss   Highly water-absorbent moss native to damp locations: used in air layering or to keep large wounds moist.
  Spiraea japonica   Japanese spiraea.
  Stewartia   Stewartia.
  Stratification   Encouraging tree seeds to germinate by dispersing them in sand and subjecting them to cold conditions before sowing.
  Styrax japonica   Snowbell.
  Sugi   Cedrus, Japanese cedar.
  Suiban   Shallow dish without a drainage hole.
  Suiseki   Viewing stone.
  Syringa velutina   Korean lilac.
  Tachia-gari   Trunk region.
  Tachinbana-modoki   Pyracantha, Firethorn.
  Take   Bamboo.
  Tamarix juniperina   Tamarisk.
  Tanuki   Technique where a tree is planted against the trunk of another dead tree.
  Tap root   A long. Anchoring root that grows vertically downwards in the soil: often, the first undivided root of a seedling.
  Taxodium distichum   Swamp cypress.
  Taxus baccata   Common yew.
  Taxus cuspidata   Japanese yew.
  Tender   Describing a plant that cannot withstand frost and may die if kept outdoors in the cold.
  Thymus serpyllum   Thyme.
  Tilia cordata   Small leaved lime.
  Tokoname   A region in Japan that is a major centre for the manufacture and export of containers for bonsai.
  Tokonoma   A niche or alcove built into a wall of a japanese house to display floral arrangements or bonsai.
  Toriki   Technique of obtaining bonsai by airlayering.
  Tosho   Juniperus rigida, Needle juniper.
  Tsubaki   Camellia japonica, Common camellia.
  Tsuga canadensis   Eastern hemlock.
  Tsuga heterophylla   Western hemlock.
  Tsuge   Buxus, Box tree.
  Tsugi-ki   Technique of obtaining bonsai by crafting.
  Ulmus glabra   Scots elm.
  Ulmus parvifolia   Chinese elm.
  Ulmus procera   English elm.
  Ume   Prunus mume, Japanese flowering apricot.
  Umemodoki   Ilex serrata, Japanese deciduous holly.
  Vitis vinifera   Grape vine.
  Weigela florida   Weigela.
  Wisteria chinensis   Chinese wisteria.
  Wisteria floribunda   Japanese wisteria.
  Wound sealant   A compound that seals a cut in a branch or a trunk: it prevents sap bleeding and loss of moisture, and thus promotes healing.
  Yamadori   Collecting bonsai from the wild.
  Yama-sakura   Prunus avium, Japanese wild cherry.
  Yanagi   Salix babylonica, Weeping willow.
  Yatsubusa   A particular type of dwarf form. with shorter intenodal distances and more buds than usual, and thus denser top-growth.
  Yose-Ue   Forest planting or multiple tree style.
  Zakuro   Punica granatum, Pomegranate.
  Zelkova serrata   Japanese elm.